Child Abuse and Maltreatment/Neglect: Identification and Reporting
New York State Mandatory Training

Risk Factors Contributing to Child Abuse and Maltreatment


Who Are the Mandated Reporters?

Abuse and Maltreatment/Neglect Have Many Presentations

The Disturbing Statistics

Legal Definitions Related to Child Maltreatment

Recognizing Child Abuse

Case Studies: Identifying Abuse

Protective Factors for Child Abuse and Maltreatment

The Consequences of Child Abuse

Perpetrators of Child Abuse

Talking with Children

Reporting Child Abuse and Maltreatment

Reasonable Cause/When to Reportt

How to Report

What Happens After a Report is Made

The Abandoned Infant Protection Act




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Child Risk Factors

  • Premature birth,
  • Birth anomalies,
  • Low birth weight,
  • Exposure to toxins in utero
  • Temperament: difficult or slow to warm up
  • Physical/cognitive/emotional disability, chronic or serious illness
  • Childhood trauma
  • Anti-social peer group
  • Age
  • Child aggression, behavior problems, attention deficits

Parental/Family Risk Factors

  • Poverty
  • Parental substance abuse
  • Parental impulsivity
  • Parental low self-esteem
  • A lack of social support for the family.
  • Parental immaturity
  • Parents' unrealistic expectations
  • Unmet emotional needs
  • The stress of caring for children
  • Economic crisis
  • Domestic/intimate partner violence
  • Lack of parenting knowledge/skills
  • Lack of communication skills
  • Inaccurate knowledge and expectations about child development
  • Difficulty in managing relationships
  • Depression, anxiety or other mental health problems
  • Personality Factors
  • External locus of control
  • Low tolerance for frustration
  • Feelings of insecurity
  • Lack of trust
  • Insecure attachment with own parents
  • Childhood history of abuse
  • Family structure - single parent with lack of support, high number of children in household
  • Social isolation, lack of support
  • Separation/divorce, especially high conflict divorce
  • High general stress level
  • Poor parent-child interaction, negative attitudes and attributions about child's behavior

Community Risk Factors

  • Low socioeconomic status
  • Stressful life events
  • Social isolation/lack of social support
  • Dangerous/violent neighborhood
  • Community violence
  • Poverty
  • Lack of access to medical care, health insurance, adequate child care, and social services

Societal Risk Factors

  • Homelessness
  • Exposure to racism/discrimination
  • Poor schools
  • Exposure to environmental toxins
  • Narrow legal definitions of child maltreatment
  • Social acceptance of violence (as evidenced by music lyrics, television, film and video games)
  • Political and religious views that value noninterference in families.


Continue on to Protective Factors for Child Abuse and Maltreatment